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Long term

Long term Bank loan: borrowing from bank for a limited period of time. The business has to pay an interest on the borrowing. This interest may be fixed or variable. Businesses taking loan will often have to provide security or collateral for the loan.

Issue of share: It is a permanent source of finance but only available to limited companies. Public limited companies can sell further shares up to the limit of their authorized share capital. Private limited companies can sell further shares to existing shareholders.



Permanent source of capital.
In case of ordinary shares business will only pay dividends if there is a profit.

Dividends have to be paid to the shareholders.

Debentures: A debenture is defined as a certificate of acceptance of loans which is given under the company's stamp and carries an undertaking that the debenture holder will get a fixed return (fixed on the basis of interest rates) and the principal amount whenever the debenture matures. It is issued for a long periods of time. Debentures are generally freely transferrable by the debenture holder. Debenture holders have no voting rights and the interest given to them is a charge against profit.

Sales and lease back: this involves a firm selling its assets or property to an investment company and then leasing it back over a long period of time. The business thus can use the asset without purchasing it and can use the revenue earned from its sale for other purposes.

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