Below the line

activities include all other promotional activities except advertising i.e.

Sales promotion

It includes activities like

  • price reduction,
  • giving out free gifts with every purchase,
  • organising competitions,
  • point of sale display,
  • demonstrations,
  • after-sales service,
  • giving out free samples

Sponsorships

It includes sponsoring sports events or cultural shows or fashion shows

Public relations

Organizing press conferences in giving out information about new products or carrying out some social service activity.

Personal selling

where a representative from the company influences the customers to buy the product. It is common for products which are expensive or custom designed. Sales person at a car showroom is a typical example of personal selling.

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